Ginger

GINGER (Zingiber officinale)
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CLINICAL STUDIES

Introduction

People frequently subject to blood clots are generally prescribed oral anti-coagulants to help keep their blood relatively thin. One of the most commonly used drugs for this is warfarin sodium (better known as Coumadin).

Awareness is growing among cardiac patients that warfarin sodium also used as a potent rat poison and can lead to serious internal hemorrhaging over an extended period of time.

Ginger root, with a traditional reputation as an anti-coagulant (See 47 & 48) and cardio-tonic (See 49 & 50) , is increasingly being considered as an ideal alternative to such synthetic blood thinners. Its recognition for this purpose is wide spread in Asian countries and it is beginning to excite interest in the West as clinical trials at such prestigious institutions as Cornell confirm both the efficacy and safety of gingerol , the active constituent in Zingiber Officinale

In traditional medicine, ginger, like cayenne, is a carrier herb. Carrier herbs bind other herbs given with them and help carry them deeper into the body’s systems to increase their efficacy. It is also has a traditional role as an aid to digestion and is specific for the treatment of colic, dyspepsia and flatulence. Its complementary role in Super Naturals Heart Formula is to assist in the speedy removal of garlic odour after sub-lingual dosage.

Medicinal Value

In studies conducted by Cornell University Medical College , ginger was found to help prevent hardening of the arteries and strokes. Gingerol inhibits an enzyme that is believed to cause cells to clot and so prevents recurrences of so-called “little” strokes.

Gingerol causes vagal stimulation and a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate. It is believed that its circulatory stimulation properties help offset sluggish circulation.

References:
Prescription for Nutritional Healing by James F. Balch, M.D. & Phyllis A. Balch, C.N.C.
The Herbal Handbook by David Hoffman
Herbal Medicine by Sharol Tilner , N.D.

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/ginger13.html

http://www.csu.edu.au/faculty/health/biomed/MHR/ginger_.htm

CLINICAL ABSTRACT – India

Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease.
Bordia A, Verma SK , Srivastava KC.
Department of Medicine, R.N.T. Medical College , Udaipur , India .

In a placebo-controlled study the effect of ginger and fenugreek was examined on blood lipids, blood sugar, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity. The subjects included in this study were healthy individuals, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who either had CAD or were without CAD. In patients with CAD powdered ginger administered in a dose of 4 g daily for 3 months did not affect ADP- and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Also, no change in the fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen level was observed. However, a single dose of 10 g powdered ginger administered to CAD patients produced a significant reduction in platelet aggregation induced by the two agonists. Ginger did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar. Fenugreek given in a dose of 2.5 g twice daily for 3 months to healthy individuals did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). However, administered in the same daily dose for the same duration to CAD patients also with NIDDM, fenugreek decreased significantly the blood lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides) without affecting the HDL-c

Publication Types:

Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 9175175 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

CLINICAL ABSTRACT – India

Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man.
Verma SK , Singh J, Khamesra R, Bordia A.
Department of Medicine & Indigenous Drug Research Centre, RNT Medical College , Udaipur .

Dietary supplementation of 100 g butter in 20 healthy male volunteers for 7 days was found to enhance platelet aggregation to a significant extent (P < 0.001). Addition of 5 g of dry ginger in two divided doses with fatty meal (in 10 individuals) significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and epinephrine, while in the placebo control group (10 individuals), there was no significant alteration in platelet aggregation. Serum lipids, however, remained unchanged in both the groups.

PMID: 8119760 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

CLINICAL ABSTRACT – Japan

Cardiotonic action of [8]-gingerol, an activator of the Ca++-pumping adenosine triphosphatase of sarcoplasmic reticulum, in guinea pig atrial muscle.
Kobayashi M, Ishida Y, Shoji N, Ohizumi Y.
Mitsubishi-Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo , Japan .

[8]-Gingerol (gingerol), a component of ginger, produced a concentration-dependent positive inotropic effect on guinea pig isolated left atria at concentrations of 1 X 10(-6) to 3 X 10(-5) M. Gingerol also exhibited positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on guinea pig right atria. The gingerol-induced inotropic effect was abolished by ryanodine, but was little affected by propranolol, chlorpheniramine, cimetidine, tetrodotoxin, diltiazem or reserpine. The time to peak tension and relaxation time within a single contraction were shortened by gingerol (1 X 10(-5) M) as well as isoproterenol, whereas they were prolonged by BAY K 8644. In guinea pig isolated atrial cells, gingerol (3 X 10(-6) M) caused an increase in the degree and the rate of longitudinal contractions. In guinea pig left atria, gingerol (1 X 10(-6) to 3 X 10(-5) M) gave little influence on the action potential, although it increased the contractile force of the atria. The whole-cell patch-clamp experiments showed that the slow inward current was little affected by gingerol (1 X 10(-6) to 3 X 10(-5) M) in voltage-clamped guinea pig cardiac myocytes. The measurement of extravesicular Ca++ concentration using a Ca++ electrode indicated that gingerol (3 X 10(-6) to 3 X 10(-5) M) accelerated the Ca++ uptake of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) prepared from canine cardiac muscle in a concentration-dependent manner.

PMID: 2457078 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

CLINICAL ABSTRACT – Japan

Gingerol, a novel cardiotonic agent, activates the Ca2+-pumping
ATPase in skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Kobayashi M, Shoji N, Ohizumi Y.
Mitsubishi-Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo , Japan .

Gingerol, isolated as a potent cardiotonic agent from the rhizome of ginger, stimulated the Ca2+-pumping activity of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) prepared from rabbit skeletal and dog cardiac muscles. The extravesicular Ca2+ concentrations of the heavy fraction of the fragmented SR (HSR) were measured directly with a Ca2+ electrode to examine the effect of gingerol on the SR. Gingerol (3-30 microM) accelerated the Ca2+-pumping rate of skeletal and cardiac SR in a concentration-dependent manner. The rate of 45Ca2+ uptake of HSR was also increased markedly by 30 microM gingerol without affecting the 45Ca2+ efflux from HSR. Furthermore, gingerol activated Ca2+-ATPase activities of skeletal and cardiac SR (EC50, 4 microM). The activation of SR Ca2+-ATPase activity by gingerol (30 microM) was completely reversed by 100-fold dilution with the fresh saline solution. Kinetic analysis of activating effects of gingerol suggests that the activation of SR Ca2+-ATPase is uncompetitive and competitive with respect to Mg . ATP at concentrations of 0.2-0.5 mM and above 1 mM, respectively. Kinetic analysis also suggests that the activation by gingerol is mixed-type with respect to free Ca2+ and this enzyme is activated probably due to the acceleration of enzyme-substrate complex breakdown. Gingerol had no significant effect on sarcolemmal Ca2+-ATPase, myosin Ca2+-ATPase, actin-activated myosin ATPase and cAMP-phosphodiesterase activities, indicating that the effect of gingerol is rather specific to SR Ca2+-ATPase activity . Gingerol may provide a valuable chemical tool for studies aimed at clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of SR Ca2+-pumping systems and the causal relationship between the Ca2+-pumping activity of SR and muscle contractility.

PMID: 2443170 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]